The word "morals" comes from Arabic namely " Al-Khulk " which means tabeat, temperament, behavior, habits, behavior. According to the term, morality is a trait that is embedded in a human being who can issue something with pleasure and ease without the existence of a thought and coercion.
According to the term, character is a trait that is embedded in a human being who can issue something with pleasure and ease without the existence of a thought and coercion. In KBBI, morals means character or behavior. Moral terminology means the behavior of someone who is driven by a conscious desire to do a good deed.
Morals is the plural form of the word khuluk , derived from Arabic which means temperament, behavior, or character. Three experts in the field of morals namely Ibn Miskawaih, Al Gazali, and Ahmad Amin stated that morals are inherent traits in someone who can bring up good deeds without considering the mind first.
The word morals is interpreted as a behavior, but the behavior must be done repeatedly is not enough just to do good deeds, or only at any time.
A person can be said to have morality if it arises by itself is driven by motivation from within and is done without a lot of thought considerations let alone considerations that are often repeated, so that it seems as a compulsion to act.
If the act is carried out by force it is not a reflection of morals. In the Encyclopedia Brittanica morals is referred to as moral science which has the meaning of a systematic study of the nature of the notions of good, bad, supposedly right, wrong and so on about general principles and can be applied to something, henceforth can be referred to as moral philosophy.
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According to him, morals are " things li nnsisi daa'iyatun lahaa ila af'aaliha min ghoiri fikrin walaa ruwiyatin " which is a trait embedded in a person's soul that drives him to do an action without requiring thought and consideration.
Morals are traits imprinted in the human psyche from which actions are carried out that are carried out happily and easily without thinking of themselves and without any reflection first.
Morality is a science from which can be known the types of virtues, where the virtue is the realization of a balance between the three forces namely the power of thought, anger and lust or lust.
Morality is something that is (good or bad) deeply ingrained in human beings from which actions are born easily and lightly without thinking and pondering.
In Al-Qur'an Surah Al-Qolam verse 4 says that " And indeed you (Muhammad) are above the great character ". And in a hadith it is said that " I was sent only to perfect the noble character ". So it is clear for Muslims throughout nature to rely on the morals of the prophet Muhammad.
Praised morals that exist in the Prophet Muhammad should be made an example and a good role model. There are two sources that must be used as a guide for life, namely the Qur'an and Sunnah, both of which are used as sources of Islamic morals. If humans have morality or good morals, good praise, God willing, their lives will be much better.
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The Purpose of Morals
Morals aim to make humans as higher and more perfect beings, and distinguish them from other creatures. Being a thing that must be possessed by humans to be better in good relations with fellow humans, especially to God as creator.
Whereas moral or moral studies aim to find out the differences between good and bad human behavior, so that humans can hold on to good traits and distance themselves from evil traits, so as to create order in social relations.
What is to be controlled by morals is the act of human birth, but because the act of birth will not occur if it is not preceded by inner movements, namely the actions of the heart, then the actions of the heart and gestures also include the field governed by human morals.
If everyone can master his inner actions, then he can become a person of good character. Strictly good and bad it depends on the actions of his heart. In the hadith Arba'in An Nawawi written that the Prophet Muhammad said that means:
"And know that, in the body there is a lump of meat that when good, then good deeds, and if bad, then bad deeds, and know that he is the heart".
This hadith clearly explains, that the heart is the most important part of the human body, so that whatever is planned by the true heart will greatly affect the actions that will be carried out by the owner. In this case it can be likened that the body is like a government in us, while the heart becomes the center of government.
Someone who has a strong heart and stance, even though his body is not as strong as his heart, is more expected to get the results of his work than someone who is strong but has a weak heart.
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Various Kinds of Morals
Finer (al-akhlaaqul mahmuudah)
That is good deeds towards God, fellow human beings, and other creatures. Here is an example of good character:
- Devoted to both parents (برّالوالدين)
- Respect for neighbors and guests (اكرام الجار والضّيف)
- Trying to generate affection and attract the sympathy of others (كسب الموالدة واستمالة قلو ب النّاس)
- Make a donation that is lighten the burden on the lives of those who are entitled to receive it (بذل الصّدقة لمن يستحقها)
- Help facilitate the affairs of fellow humans for those who are capable (تسير امر عسير على اخ عند ذى سلطان)
Morals reprehensible (al-akhlaaqul madzmuumah)
Namely, bad deeds towards God, fellow human beings, and other creatures. Here are examples of despicable morals:
- Lying (الكذب)
- Swearing (الغيبة)
- Pitting sheep (النّميمة)
- Envy / Envy (الحسد)
- Arrogant (الأصغر)
The closest to someone is himself, then that person should realize and realize himself, because only by being aware and aware of oneself, the base of ultimate moral perfection, high mind.
Humans consist of physical and spiritual, besides that humans already have their own nature, with all of them humans have advantages and wherever humans have deeds.
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This character includes the obligations of parents, children and close relatives. The obligation of parents towards children, in Islam directs parents and educators to pay attention to children perfectly, with wise teachings,
every religion has ordered every person who has the responsibility to direct and educate, especially fathers and mothers, to have noble morals, gentleness and compassion.
So that children will grow patiently, educated to dare to stand alone, then feel that they have self-respect, honor and glory. A child must love his parents because they are more entitled than all other humans for you to love, obey and respect.
Because both of them nurture, nurture, and educate, educate you, love sincerely so that you become a good person, useful in society, happy in the world and the hereafter.
And try to know that your brothers and sisters are sons and daughters of your mother who also love you, help your father and mother in educating you, they are happy when you are happy and defend you when necessary.
Your uncle, your aunt and their children love you and want you to be safe and happy, because they love your father and mother and help them in every way.
Your neighbors are grateful if your parents are happy and you are having a hard time if your parents are having difficulties, they are helping, and are together looking for benefits and rejecting marriages, your parents love and respect them, it is obligatory for you to follow your father and mother, namely love and respect for neighbors.
Moral / moral education cannot be separated from social social education, moral / morality arises in the community. Decency / moral always grows and develops in accordance with the progress and development of society. Since long time ago humans could not live alone and separated from each other, but in groups, help, help each other and influence each other, this is what is called the community.
The life and development of society can be smooth and orderly if each individual as a member of the community acts according to the rules in accordance with the prevailing norms of decency.
Those who are your countrymen are citizens who speak the same language as you, do not hesitate to sacrifice for the glory of your homeland, you live with them with the same fate and responsibility. And know that you are one of them and you appear to drown with them.
This character is the moral or obligation of man towards his God, because of that the scope of the moral character is very broad covering all aspects of life, both vertically with God, and horizontally with fellow creatures of God.
Factors That Affect Moral
To explain the factors that influence morals in particular, and education in general, there are three schools that are already very popular, namely the flow of Nativism, the flow of Empiricism, and the flow of convergence:
That human development has been determined by factors brought about by humans from birth; It is the nature that is present at birth that determines the outcome of its development.
According to this flow, the most influential factor on one's self-formation is an innate factor whose form can be in the form of inclinations, talents, reason, and others. If someone already has a disposition or inclination to the good, then the person naturally becomes good.
That the most influential factor on one's self-formation is external factors, namely the social environment, including the guidance and education provided. If the education and guidance given to a child is good, then that child is good.
Vice versa. This flow is so believe in the role carried out by the world of education and teaching. According to this flow, humans can be educated into anything (in the direction of good or in a bad direction) according to the will of the environment or education. In education, the opinion of the empiricists is known by the name of pedagogical optimism .
That the formation of morals is influenced by internal factors, namely the child's care, and external factors, namely education and coaching that is made specifically, or through interaction in the social environment. Nature and the tendency towards the good that exists in humans are fostered intensively through various methods. This third school, seems to be in accordance with Islamic teachings. this can be understood from the verses and hadith below:
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وَاللهُ أَخْرَجَكُمْ مِّنْ بُطُوْنِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ لاَتَعْلَمُوْنَ شَيْأً وَّجَعَلَ لَكمََََََََََََََََََََََََََََُُُُْ
"And God took you out of your mother's stomach in a state of knowing nothing, and she gave you hearing, vision and heart, so that you are grateful." (Indonesian Ministry of Religion, 1989: 413)
The verse gives a clue that humans have the potential to be educated, namely vision, hearing and heartstrings. This potential must be appreciated by filling it with teaching and education.
The concordance of the convergence theory above is also in line with the Hadith of the Holy Prophet. which reads:
كُلُّ مَوْلُوْدٍ يُوْلَدُ عَلَى الْفِطْرَةِ فَأَبَوَاهُ يُهَوِّدَانِهِ أَوْ يُنَصِّرَانِهِ أََُُُُُُُُُُُُِِِِّّّّْ (رواه البخارى)
Every child is born holy, then his father and mother will make him a Jew or a Christian "(Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3, 1995: 177).
The above verse and hadith, besides describing the theory of convergence, also show clearly that the main implementers in education are both parents. That is why both parents, especially mothers get the title as madrasa, which is the place where educational activities take place (Abudin Nata, 2006: 169).
By referring to the flow of convergence above, it can be concluded, that there are two factors that influence human morals, namely internal factors and external factors. According to Shailun A. Nashir (1992: 42) internal factors that affect morals consist of instinct, reason and lust.
Meanwhile, according to Rahmat Djatnika (1992: 72) factors in human beings are instincts and their minds, customs, beliefs, desires, passions (passion) and conscience or wijdan . In addition, internal factors that can affect morals are also present in the individual concerned, such as laziness, unwilling to work, physical disabilities, psychological disabilities and others.
Factors originating from outside himself
As for the factors that come from outside him directly or indirectly, whether they realize it or not, everything that reaches him is the elements that shape morals. These factors are:
- Friendship / Friendship
- Lord, leader
Akhlakul Karimah in Relation to the Function of Life
Good morals (al-akhlaqu al-mahmudah) are very important in everyday life, because with these morals can balance between good morals with bad morals in human actions, then the size and character is always dynamic, difficult to solve.
Islam wants a society of good character. This noble character is emphasized because in addition to bringing happiness to individuals, it also brings happiness to society in general. In other words that the main character displayed by someone, the goal is to get happiness in the world and the hereafter (Abudin Nata, 2000: 169-170).
Allah SWT. describe in the Koran about His promises to people who always have good character, including QS an-Nahl: 97
من عمل صالحا من ذكر أو أنثى وهو مؤمن فلنحيينه حياة طيبة ولنجزينهم أجرهم بأحسن ما كانوا يعملون (النحل: 97)
Whoever does righteous deeds, both men and women in a state of faith, then surely we will give him a good life and in fact we will reward them with a reward that is better than what they have done.
People who always carry out noble morals, they will always get a good life, get a double reward in the hereafter and will be included in heaven. Thus, people who have noble character will get the luck of living in this world and the hereafter.
Social reality proves that people who have good character will be liked by society, their difficulties and suffering will be helped to be solved, even though they do not expect it. Opportunities, beliefs and opportunities come and go to him.
The fact also shows that people who donate a lot, give alms, give alms, will not be poor, but instead increase their wealth. The character of karimah is a practice of worship in which someone in his behavior is required to do good to Allah. and do good to humans, also to themselves, also to other creatures of God.
In realizing the noble character as praiseworthy characteristics that have been explained above, according to Buya Hamka there are several obligations that must be fulfilled, among others:
- Cleanse the heart and purify a relationship with Allah
- Paying attention to all religious commands and prohibitions
- Learn to fight your own will and conquer it to God's will
- Upholding brotherhood in Islam Making the Prophet Muhammad a role model in every behavior.
Morals, Morals, and Ethics
Good or bad attitudes or behaviors that are carried out repeatedly and acted on by someone unintentionally or do consideration first.
A matter relating to good and bad with the size of the traditions and culture of a person or group of people.
A science that examines good and bad issues based on human reason. (Daud Ali, 2008) While morality is a matter of good and bad with the size of the traditions and culture that a person or group of people has. Different from ethics and morals.
Moral, Ethical and Moral Differences
From the description above it can be understood that morals is different from ethics and morals. If morals are more transcendental because they originate and originate from God, then ethics and morals are relative, dynamic, and relative because they are human understanding and meaning through the elaboration of ijtihad on good and bad issues for the welfare of human life in the world and the happiness of life in the afterlife.
Based on these different sources, ethics and morals are always dynamic, changing according to the development of conditions, situations and human demands. Ethics as a rule of good and bad that is determined by the human mind aims to create harmony. Likewise morals as a rule of good and bad based on tradition, cultural customs adopted by a group of people also aims to create harmony in human life.
Ethics, morals and morals are one way to create harmony in relationships between human beings (habl minannas) and vertical relationships with khaliq (habl minallah).